Indium (chem. the symbol In) is the 49th element in the periodic table. Its name comes from the spectroscopic lines of indium (Indigo). Is a silvery-white metal similar to zinc. Is fusible, significant softness, malleability. In their chemical qualities are very close to gallium or aluminum,
German chemists Richter and Reich in 1863, the spectral analysis of zinc blende were able to detect in the spectrum of the very bright line of Indigo. Chemists were looking for gallium, which gives the lines of green glow, but instead has opened up a whole new unknown element. Isolated in pure form, it was very soft, almost 20 times softer than gold and much softer lead. A small newfound metal ingot in a little more than a pencil was priced at 700 dollars. for 1G. Today the price for 1 kg In is about $ 700. The consumption of it in the world is steadily growing and by 2006 it reached 860 T.
Indium is found in the form of low-interest ore impurities. High Fe sphalerite contains it to a tenth of a percent, beds and chalcopyrite — an order of magnitude less, and pyrrhotite, cassiterite — thousandths of a percent. In wolframite, arsenopyrite, pyrite concentration of indium is several grams per ton. The total content of this element in the lithosphere of the Earth is about 0.25 g/t.
In chemistry a useless waste does not exist. The proof is the technology of obtaining of indium from industrial waste. It is derived from the intermediate waste zinc, copper, lead, tin, where it is contained (up to 0.1%). Its separation from cadmium, copper, zinc, antimony is rather difficult occupation, but it’s worth it: it indium in very high demand. Not the first stage it is a rough separation from zinc, cadmium, and copper. The raw material is treated with sulfuric acid, dissolving metals. By hydrolytic deposition stands out a concentrate, which is achieved by changing the acidity of the solution. Precipitated cadmium hydroxide at pH 8, hydroxide of copper and zinc, with 6. For the «planting» of indium hydroxide requires a pH of the solution was brought to 4. «Rough indium» is recovered by cementation from concentrate aluminum and zinc, and «clean India» is produced by refining with the use of zone melting.
According to the interstate standard GOST 10297−94regulating quality of India made in bars, ingots, and pyramids, this metal has five classes of purity — it all depends on his percentage. Brand Ин0000 comprises 99.9999% of chemically pure indium. Share it Ин000 is of 99.9995%, Marche Ин00 is 99.999%. Brand Ин0 has a chemical purity 99,998%, Ин2 — of 99.97%.
The density of India at 20 °C is equal to of 7.31 g/cm3. It dissolves in nearly all acids, but most likely in the inorganic (very easily in nitric and perchloric). Resistant to alkalis, but reacts with chlorine and bromine, and when heated with sulfur vapors of phosphorus, iodine. Critical temperature of superconductivity is t° 3,405°K. In contrast to magnesium, which is ignited at t° 623 °C, indium is able to withstand heat up to 800 °C, but after flashing flame violet-blue color with the formation of oxide.
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||114,818|
|Density [g/cm3]||Of 7.31|
|The melting temperature t°C||153°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||3,24|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||81,8|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||225,1|
The acceptor additive to Germany or silicon for the production of microelectronic circuits. Fusible solder: due to the exceptional adhesion of India with many materials, for example, soldering of metal with glass. Coating with indium of car headlights or mirrors to increase their reflectivity to the level of silver, and their resistance to atmospheric influences is much higher. Indium is part of the «blue gold». It is applicable for the production of LCD monitors, photoelectric cells, calibration of thermocouples and as a phosphor. Coating indium aluminum diesel piston skirts reduces wear. Indium arsenide is a highly efficient high temperature thermoelectric. The isotopes 111In, 113In used in radioisotope diagnosis. The isotope 115In are used for detection with a threshold energy of 120 Kev neutrino.
World consumption of this metal in the XXI century is growing rapidly and by 2009 was able to reach 900 m. It is an indispensable material for high vacuum technology for sealing coatings, gaskets; sealing particle accelerators, space ships. To create a battery of high intensity serves as a system of electrochemical elements indium oxide of mercury. The alloy of indium with silver is resistant to hydrogen sulfide, and is also used in the creation of high quality reflective coatings. Alloys of indium, gallium, tin, zinc may melt at room temperature, thus provide a liquid-metal coolants. Indium helps control a nuclear reaction by absorbing thermal neutrons. Oxide InO is made of glass, which absorbs thermal neutrons. The most popular composition of the glass is 12% InO, 33% of boron oxide, and 55% of oxide of cadmium. Orthophosphate India is the composition of dental cements.
Comes in vehicles covered. With the help of rail transportation are transported in small parts. Brand Ин00, Ин00 come in the form of pyramids or bars, weighing 0.05 to 1 kg. Other brands — less than 3 pounds. The sample surface may have bumps and shrink holes. Each of the bars marked. Bars brands Ин000, Ин0000 packaged separately, each in plastic wrap and brand Ин00, Ин0 can be folded in pairs.
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