Tape, strip niobium NB-1, NB-2
Niobium in its pure form is plastic, and in a cold state are capable of rolling into a very thin strip without intermediate annealing (thickness 0.01 mm). The tensile strength of niobium at a temperature of 20−800°C changes little, and its relative elongation. Electromechanical properties extraordinary refractoriness (temp.PL.2468°C), make it possible to produce ribbon of niobium cathodes, anodes, grids vacuum devices. The minimum work function of electrons of niobium (of 4.01 EV — electron emission) than are used in vacuum technology similar refractory elements — molybdenum and tungsten. Niobium also has a high transition temperature in excess of the held state.
|Physical properties of Nb|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||92,9|
|Oxidation||5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|The melting temperature t°C||2468°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||26,6|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||53,7|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||680|
Manufacture of tapes and sheets of niobium
In the production of these types of rental will apply ingot produced by powder metallurgy. Metal in powder form is sintered in a more suitable form for processing. The pulling of the ingot strip is produced by extrusion — forcing the matrix through the slit of a flat plastic blank. After this, the strip is annealed in a vacuum furnace and cooled. For the production of tape work temperature with metal, usually higher than 1500 °C, and the finished product is cooled to a temperature of 780−800°C. the result is a tape with a uniform grain thickness of which is 0.25 mm and is rolled to the required parameters.
Tape, a sheet of niobium is used in machine building, instrument making, military-industrial complex and aerospace engineering. Niobium is used in valves for the process industry and the chemical industry, because it is resistant to hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, sulfuric, and organic acids in various concentrations up to temp. 150 °C.
By the end of the twentieth century particularly valuable properties of niobium, such as lack at temperatures up to 1100 °C visible interaction with uranium, high thermal conductivity, and minimal induced radioactivity, and narrow is the capture cross section for thermal neutrons. These properties allow the niobium to be in nuclear power, along with beryllium, aluminum, zirconium. From a sheet of niobium is most often used to produce containers for waste storage of radioactive substances, as well as shell for fuel elements.
|Mark||GOST||Impurities, %, not more|
|Niobium in stabika|
|Nbsh00||16100−70||0, 03||0, 02||0, 03||0, 01||0, 1||0, 03||0, 01||-|
|Nbsh0||0, 03||0, 02||0, 03||0, 03||0, 4||0, 08||0, 1||-|
|Nbsh1||0, 06||0, 04||0, 05||0, 03||0, 4||0, 08||0, 1||-|
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