Niobium — grayish-silvery shiny metal, is designated in the periodic table of chem. Elements by the symbol Nb. It has an atomic weight of 93.986, a boiling point of 5015 ° K, and a melting point of 2741 ° K. Niobium has a body-centered cubic crystal lattice, a = 0.3294 nm of the α-Fe type.
|Physical properties of Nb|
|Atomic (molar) mass g / mol||92.9|
|Degrees of oxidation||5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|Density [g / cm 3 ]||8.57|
|Melting point t ° C||2468 ° С|
|Heat of fusion kJ / mol||26.6|
|Thermal conductivity K [W / (m · K)]||53.7|
|Heat of evaporation kJ / mol||680|
Today, niobium production is growing at a rapid pace. This is due to the organic combination of such qualities as refractoriness, insignificant cross section capture of thermal neutrons, getter properties, the ability to form superconducting and heat-resistant alloys, corrosion resistance, excellent cold workability, hot pressures, welding ability, low electron work function. The main fields of application are rocketry, aviation, space technology, radio engineering, electronics, industrial chemistry and nuclear power.
Niobium is a rather expensive metal. Metallic niobium dust irritates the eyes, the skin is flammable. Its individual compounds are very toxic. MPC Nb is 0.01 mg / l. In case of ingestion, niobium can cause severe neuritis with further paralysis of the limbs.
Nb and its alloys are used in the manufacture of rocket parts, aircraft; Shells of uranium and plutonium boilers (t ° melting carbide NbC = 3480 ° C), containers for liquid metal. Applied heat carriers in nuclear reactors — liquid sodium and potassium, circulate through niobium tubes. Nb has low artificial (induced) radioactivity, therefore it is suitable for storing radioactive waste. It is widely used for the manufacture of electrolytic capacitors, as well as «hot» fittings of powerful electron tubes (anodes, cathodes, grids).
Alloys of niobium produce corrosion-resistant equipment in the chemical industry. With the help of this metal, non-ferrous metals, even uranium, are doped. Nb is used in superconducting — cryotron components of computers, was used in the accelerating structures of the andron collider.
|Chemical composition, in percents|
|Make||Mass fraction of impurities, no more than|
|Hydrogen||Oxygen||Nitrogen||Carbon||Iron||Tantalum||Silicon||Titanium||Tungsten with molybdenum|
Steel pipes doped with niobium have the highest strength and corrosion resistance. Packed pipes can be transported by any transport. During transportation, they must be protected from moisture, chemicals, mechanical deformations.
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