Magnesium is a very light silvery-white metal of the periodic table of the chemical. items where indicated Mg. Under normal conditions the air is almost constant from oxidation protects the surface of thin oxide layer.
The richest deposits of magnesium are Russia, Norway, China, USA. Magnesite and brucite contain 34−40% Mg, and dolomite, epsomite, keseric of the order of 13−17%. A small percentage (up to 0.13% Mg) is dissolved in the oceans, but if you multiply that by the billions of tons of water, it turns out that the world’s oceans — perhaps the richest storehouse of his. Magnesium salts are readily soluble. Magnesite imposed hydrothermal waters to the surface where precipitates when the temperature drops. Salts of magnesium rich deposits of sedimentary lakes. Sedimentary carnallite salts are everywhere, and nests of dolomite located around the thermal springs. Major deposits were formed in the Precambrian or Permian period sedimentary way, their reserves are huge.
Technical magnesium is produced by way of electrolysis of molten salt mixtures of the chlorides of sodium, magnesium, potassium. For excluding impurities requires additional purification by electrolytic refining, melting together with special fluxes in vacuum. Often used sublimation in vacuum. Clean refined magnesium is not less than 99.999%. Another way is thermal, which is based on the recovery of MgO at high temperature using coke or silica. Silicon facilitates the separation of the magnesium from dolomite. The cost of magnesium in ingots today is about three dollars per kilogram.
Magnesium is an essential trace mineral for the regulation of metabolism. As found by the doctors, with the help of an application of a mixture of salts of bischofite can treat disorders of the musculoskeletal system, joints, spine. This method is indispensable in the rehabilitation of injuries.
Mg easily dissolve acid with evolution of hydrogen, and alkali are almost not affect. Magnesium in a solution of three percent sodium chloride and sea water corrodes rapidly, forming a hydroxide. It is resistant to alcohols (except methyl), gasoline, kerosene, freon and mineral oil. He is an energetic reducing agent, is able to displace from compounds less active elements and to recover other metals at room temperature from solutions of salts. When the filament it takes the oxygen from oxides and alkalis. Using magnesium powder get simple connection, which is a valuable quality that allows its use for obtaining titanium.
Mg is a very light metal with t° boiling 1103 °C, its density is about 1.7 g/cm3 at 20 °C, and melting point = equal to 650 °C. its Surface is covered with the oxide film, which is destroyed at 623 °C, after which Mg is burned. Magnesium powder and the foil is ignited with ordinary matches and burn in air and carbon dioxide. A bright flash, which has in its spectrum and ultraviolet rays, was used until the early twentieth century. Such as — burning bright dazzling flame is indispensable in signal and lighting missiles, shells and tracer bullets, incendiary bombs. Until recently, Mg was added to summer bonfires, lighted when you close, you open shifts. Powders of potassium permanganate and magnesium are explosive.
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||24,3|
|The melting temperature t°C||650°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||9,2|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||158|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||131,8|
This is one of the most high-tech metals: it is well pressed, bent, easily drilled, cut, rolled. But pure magnesium is rather fragile so as a construction material is more valuable for its alloys. With a large number of metals, magnesium is capable of forming corrosion-resistant materials with high specific strength. Magnesium tube, rod and sheet are made of alloys with aluminum, zinc, beryllium, titanium, manganese and other rare earth elements. Alloys of this type is obtained under the protection of inert atmosphere by melting Bashlykova, which provides the physical and mechanical stability and uniformity of structure semi-finished products. These alloys are very light and durable, resistant to corrosion, is widely demanded in various sectors.
|Brand magnesium alloys ingots chemical composition, % (GOST 2581−78).|
|The main components||Impurity, not more|
Mg contained in the composition of the most modern structural materials. Alloy it with aluminum has a high specific durability, it is inexpensive, indispensable in the automotive, aviation industry, where reduce the overall weight of the structure. This provides an invaluable advantage in the development of airplanes or sports cars. In vertoleta and aircraft magnesium rental demand for parts of gliders, ailerons, fairings, doors, cabs, control arms, chassis, housings of pumps and instruments, fuel and oxygen tanks. Such parts reduce fuel consumption, lighten the weight, increasing the efficiency of the models. Of these alloys produce items automotive crankcase, structures, dampers, decorative elements, housings of pumps, devices, covers tanks. Rims for wheels of magnesium, durability, ease have a prestigious, stylish look. In the electronic industry, instrument making, a magnesium rolled parts are produced devices, body cameras, mobile phones, binoculars, portable cameras. Magnesium alloys are also used for the production of electric batteries and a small percentage of absorption of thermal neutrons and the absence of interactions with uranium was the reason for the use of magnesium for the manufacture of shells of fuel elements of nuclear boilers.
Perchlorate, bromide Mg use with copper, silver, lead, bismuth, vanadium for the production of powerful batteries. Such batteries have very high capacity and discharge voltage. Magnesium-sulfur batteries are one of the most promising developments, but while they are still at the stage of laboratory research. Magnesium perchlorate is also used for laboratory deep drying of gases. MgO is a constituent of refractory materials in the production of special crucibles and lining of industrial furnaces. Synthetic single crystals of MgF2 is used to produce optical prisms and lenses.
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