Lantan brand, chemical structure
Lanthanum is a light silver metal, the element 6 th period of the third group of the periodic system, where it is marked La. Atomic number 57. Opened in the study of the «cerium earth». K. Mosander in 1826, was able to prove that the «cerium earth» is heterogeneous, there is another element in addition to cerium. In 1839, the scientist was able to isolate this element, calling it a lanthanum — from the Greek «hidden», «concealed». Today industrial production of this element begins with separation of ore into fractions. First, the cerium is separated, and then divided by the extraction of praseodymium, neodymium and lanthanum. Lanthanum exists in 3 crystalline models: up to 227 °C with a hexagonal α-lattice to 861 °C — cubic β-lattice, and with a body-centered lattice type α-Fe.
|Physical quality La|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||138,9|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The melting temperature t°C||920°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||8,5|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||13,4|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||402|
Oxide La3 O3 is used in the manufacture of special optical glass for film and photographic equipment, astronomical lens, prisms, scanning electron microscopy, La3 O3 is the basis of high-temperature superconductors together with the oxides of yttrium, strontium, barium. The lanthanum has been widely used in electronics, nuclear energy, production of hydrogen acceptors, MH and thermoelectric materials. It is used as the reducing agent of rare elements. Using lanthanum in the processing of nuclear fuel, extracted plutonium. La added to the molten uranium, to extract from the mass of molten plutonium, which POPs up along with it. The top layer is drained for further processing in the chemical way.
Supplements La3 O3 are tungsten rods series VL, they are produced with a length of at least 500 mm and a diameter of 1.5−8 mm. In the welding of such electrodes increase the maximum current carrying capacity by 50%. They are much more durable than cerium and thorium, much less wear. When a uniform distribution of La3 O3 over the entire length of the electrode is much longer retains its original sharpening. Salts of lanthanum LaCl3, LaCO3, LaF3, LaSO4 present in the alloys for production of sheets, rods and wire, considerably optimize technological properties of the material.
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