Gadolinium brand, chemical structure
Gadolinium is an element of the third group of the periodic system of the chemical. elements with atomic number 64 and an atomic mass 157,25. Belongs to the group of lanthanides. It received its name in honor of a chemist from Finland Gadolin. Opened Jean de Marignac in 1880, which proved the presence of an oxide mixture of rare earth metals new item. The content of gadolinium in the ocean water is 2.4·10— 6 mg/l, in the earth’s crust it contains 8 g/t (according Taylor). Get it by recovery of fluoride GdF3 or chloride GdCl3 with calcium. The separation of oxides of rare earth metals into fractions get compounds of gadolinium.
|Physical quality Gd|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||157,25|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The melting temperature t°C||1312°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||10|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||10,5|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||328|
Gadolinium is widely used in electronics, nuclear energy. This is due to its nuclear-physical characteristics, as well as a high degree of adaptability. Its alloy with iron and cobalt has led to the creation of new media that have a high density of records. Using the latest technology to grow gallium devices of grenades (single crystal gadolinium). This item is sought-after for the production of solid-state lasers, which are used extensively in radiation processing of metal, stone and medicine. Having a high ability to capture neutrons, this element has been used for protection against neutrons and control the nuclear reactor. Oxide Gd2 O3 is used for the melting of glass, which absorbs thermal neutrons. The hexaboride GdВ6 is used in the manufacturing of cathode x-ray machines or high-power electron guns.
Alloy of gadolinium iron is the most capacious accumulator, therefore has found application in a hydrogen car. In the diagnosis of osteoporosis is used 153 Gd. When required, the blockade of Kupffer, in the treatment of liver is used chloride, GdCl3. Gadodiamide is a contrast drug. An alloy of Nickel and gadolinium is used in the manufacture of waste storage containers of radioactive substances. Today is a big interest to myself monocrystalline alloy is a terbium-gadolinium, which is used in the manufacture of refrigerators.
Rolled alloys of gadolinium are produced in the form of bars, sheet, wire, on the basis of technical conditions and GOST 23862.13−79, which regulates the proportion of oxides determined by the method of luminescence. GOST 23862.5−79 normalizes the spectral analysis of oxide Gd2 O3.
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