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Gallium brand, chemical structure

Gallium brand, chemical structure

Gallium is a soft ductile metal with a silvery-white color with a bluish tint. It is a main group element, the third group of the periodic system of the chemical. elements with an atomic number of 31, denoted by Ga. Has two isotope. His name was suggested by Field Emilem Lecoq de Boardroom that the new metal was named after his homeland — Gaul.

Chemical properties

Gallium, with properties similar to aluminum. The metal is protected from oxidation the surface oxide film, but may react with hot water, superheated steam. Gallium is actively cooperating in the cold with mineral acids to form salts and release of N2. Gallium does not react with hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon and bromine. At high temperatures, it can break different materials, distinguishing itself with the action of stronger melt any other metal.

Physical properties

Crystalline gallium has a number of polymorphs, of which only one is thermodynamically stable and the other unstable. At 20 °C density solid Ga = 5,904 g/cm3. Liquid, it has 6,095 density g/cm3 — that is, increases in volume. Boiling temperature is 2230 °C, and the melting point is about 29.8°C. That is, in the liquid state it is from 30 °C to 2230 °C. At 1100−1200°C it has a low vapor pressure. Solid or liquid Ga has the same electrical resistivity.

Physical quality Ga
Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol 69,723
The degree of oxidation 3
Density [g/cm3] 5,91
The melting temperature t°C 29,8°C
The heat of fusion kJ/mol 5,59
The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)] 28,1
Heat of evaporation kJ/mol 270,3

Application

Gallium arsenide is a promising semiconductor. With its help, create lasers and LEDs blue and UV range. Gallium is a rather expensive metal. The cost of 1 kg Ga — about 1.5 thousand dollars. He is not only a great lubricant, but also the basis of a special metal glue.

Of gallium alloys rolled: wire, rods, sheets. Methods of determining percentage composition of additional components normalized by state standard. For example, tin is GOST 13637.5−93. For iron — 13637.4−93. For sulfur — 13637.7−93. For Selena — 13637.6−93. For tellurium — 13637.8−93. For phosphorus — 13637.9−93. And he gallium normalized by state standard 12697.13−90 .

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