Thermocouple wire is produced from alloys of alumel, Copel, chromel brands, TM, T, Constantan. Physical properties are directly dependent on the ratio of their constituent components. Alloy alumel is very flexible, able to preserve for long time durability. Constantan has a high electrical resistance, does not depend on temperature. Kopel alloy with iron, chromel and copper, is similar to kontantinos quality: large thermoelectric power, minimum coefficient of thermal expansion, high heat resistance up to temperatures of 600 °C and resistance to corrosion. The alloy chromel has a high resistance to heat and is characterized by a change of thermoelectric power in wide range.
The advantages of thermocouple wire
— heat resistance;
— low density;
— high electrical resistivity;
— minimum coefficient of thermal linear expansion;
— low temperature coefficient of electrical resistance;
— high thermo-EMF in the range of operating temperature is the most important property.
Thermocouple wire is intended for manufacture of thermocouple and compensating wires in the measuring and converting devices of the automation systems that operate at very high temperatures. The thermocouple consists of a pair of different conductors, with one end soldered and placed in a medium designed to measure the temperature («hot contact») and free the two ends placed in a thermostat (so-called «cold contact»).
The principle of operation
The thermocouple works on the principle of thermoelectric effect, i.e. by heating measures the potential difference of conductors of different materials. For a more accurate reading with a slight heating using a thermocouple with a high thermoelectric power. They have positive electrodes: copper, chromel, or iron, negative — alumel, Kopel, Constantan. The magnitude of thermo-EMF the first place is the thermocouple Copel-chromel (TCA), which is used at temperatures up to 800 °C, second copper-Kopel, after descending: Copel-iron (up to 760°C). Compensation wire transfers capacity to the registered sensor. For such wires is used cheaper wire: Constantan, chromel stamps or KM, etc. Copel Copel and Constantan used in measuring electrical appliances for the production standards of resistance.
The types of thermocouples and measurement ranges
t° 200 — 1000 °C — alumel — chromel (TCA);
t° 200 — 800 °C — Copel — chromel (TCA);
t° from -40 to 900 °C — Constantan — chromel (TCA);
t° up to 300 °C copper-Constantan;
t° from 0 to 760 °C — iron-Copel;
t° in an inert atmosphere up to 3000 °C tungsten-rhenium.
measures very low cryogenic temperatures are iron-Constantan;
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