Alloyed alloys have special additives: tungsten, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, manganese, which give the material the most valuable qualities. The use of special additives increases strength, wear resistance, heat resistance.
Ligatures have a multifaceted effect on the quality of steel. Chromium increases hardness, prevents rusting; Nickel gives plasticity; Tungsten increases hardness, redness; Vanadium increases strength, resistance to impact, erasure; Cobalt increases heat resistance, magneto-permeability; Molybdenum increases the reddensitivity, strength, counteraction to oxidation at high temperatures. The proportion of manganese above 1% increases hardness, resistance to shock loads, wear resistance; Titanium increases stability, corrosion resistance; Aluminum increases scale resistance; Niobium — acid resistance; Copper gives the alloy plasticity, prevents rust. Particularly high-quality steel besides the above-mentioned components contains boron, zirconium, selenium, nitrogen.
Quality steel containing several ligatures can be divided into 3 categories according to their design: 1) structural, 2) instrumental, 3) high-quality with special physical and chemical properties. Saturation by alloying components gives off low-alloy steel — less than 3% of alloying additives; Medium-alloyed — 3−10%; High-alloy — above 10%.
The first numbers of the mark reflect the carbon fraction in one-hundredths of a percent. For example, 10 means 0.10%. When the numbers are initially absent, the carbon fraction is more than 1%. Next comes the letter abbreviation. If there is no digit behind the letter, then this element is less than 1%. The letter «A» means the minimum content of harmful sulfur, phosphorus. For example, the 12Х2Н4А alloy contains carbon up to 0.12%, chromium up to 2%, nickel up to 4%. Alloy G13 — contains not less than 1% carbon, 13% manganese. Structural alloy steel in accordance with GOST 4543−71 is divided into 3 categories: high-quality, high-quality and the highest quality. The first is designated by the letter «A», the highest quality — the letter «Ш» through the dash. For example, 12ХНЗА — quality, З0ГС-Ш — the most qualitative. High-quality steel has an acceptable sulfur percentage up to 0.025%, high-quality steel up to 0.015%.
The most demanded are chromium steels. They differ in hardness, stability, corrosion resistance, relatively inexpensive. Widely used as a structural material for the production of weapons. Manganese alloys, for example, 15 G, 20 G, 40 G, 45 G 2, are characterized by wear resistance. Extraordinarily high-quality grade G13, which is used for caterpillars of tractors or tanks, is unusually durable. Siliceous, chromium-silicon steel possesses exceptional firmness, elasticity. Nickel — increased plasticity, the highest electrical resistance, along with exceptionally solid tungsten alloys. The latter are indispensable for instrumental processing of metals, impact-pivot drilling. Titanium gives lightness, corrosion resistance, it is a non-alternative material for underwater shipbuilding and supersonic aircraft.
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